Arachniodes aristata (East Indian holly fern)

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Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Pteridophyta
Class: Pteridopsida
Order: Dryopteridales
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Genus: Arachniodes
Species: A. aristata
Binomial name: Arachniodes aristata
Synonyms: Polypodium aristatum, Rumohra aristata
Common names: East Indian holly fern

Arachniodes aristata is a stout terrestrial fern of the forest floor. It is an indigenous fern only found in New Zealand on Raoul Island. It is also recorded from Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, India, SE. Asia, through Malaysia to Polynesia. It is common on Raoul Island within dry, usually shaded lowland forest where it grows amongst sparsely vegetated leaf litter.
It has long creeping rhizomes and its stipes are stiff, wiry and scaly, particularly near the base. The fronds are dark glossy green above but paler beneath.
It is not threatened and is only listed in the New Zealand Plant Conservation Network because it is known in the New Zealand Botanical Region from the one location, Raoul Island.

Photographed at Otira Wilton Bush Reserve
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The underside of a frond
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